Vocational Education And Training

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Vocational Education And Training

Vocational Education And Training

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Vocational Education And Training

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Received: 29 April 2022 / Revised: 8 June 2022 / Accepted: 15 June 2022 / Published: 22 June 2022

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Pakistan is a country of rich natural and human resources. The role of highly skilled people in national development has become enormously crucial in the new development era, but it is also an undeniable fact that the gap in highly skilled personnel in Pakistan is widening. The organization of technical vocational training was introduced to prepare a skilled workforce for various industries and sectors in Pakistan; However, the 60% level of young, unskilled and semi-skilled labor coming from informal and non-formal sectors is largely attributed to the failure of technical vocational training to provide the country with its need for skilled labor for the economy and the China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC ) projects. China and Pakistan launched historic projects like CPEC as part of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), which promoted economic cooperation and development between the two countries. This article will review the overview and course of Technical Vocational Education (TVET) in Pakistan. The main objective of this study is to highlight that TVET in general, and CPEC in particular, is suffering from a shortage of skilled personnel due to a number of other reasons such as outdated equipment, lack of industry linkages, inadequate skills, unemployment, and so on. The study is descriptive and exploratory, and it uses a qualitative research method. The perspectives of TVET challenges in Pakistan were explored using data obtained from 500 student and staff respondents, including teachers, TVET staff and TVET job holders. Some of the important findings include the fact that the current state of TVET institutions is undoubtedly due to infrastructural problems and lack of funding. In addition, TVET in Pakistan is characterized by inadequate skills, lack of industry linkages, unemployment, inadequate teacher training and lack of female participation. In this study, recommendations were made based on the research analysis and research findings.

A global development strategy sponsored by China, the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), includes infrastructure development, energy and investment in over 152 nations and international organizations. The BRI aspires to enrich several Asian countries (Benard 2020), and the globalization of Chinese companies has increased the demand for technical and skilled workers, creating new challenges for vocational education (Salman et al. 2019). The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, part of the BRI, includes two key components: a new commercial and transport route from Kashgar to Gwadar and SEZs (Special Economic Zones) along the route with power plants and other facilities (Ahmad 2020). CPEC would increase productivity per per capita and youth participation in Pakistan’s disadvantaged regions while reducing poverty and unemployment by nearly a million jobs if properly planned and aligned with the Planning Commission’s goals and programs. The dual benefit of CPEC can be reaped through a well-coordinated and results-oriented strategy incorporating a wide range of projects. As part of CPEC, Pakistan’s TVET sector will be modernized through technology transfer and training of Pakistani youth to the CPEC standards.

The correct human resource development policy is essential for economic growth. Mello (Mello 2008), Heckman and Lochner (Heckman et al. 2008) assessed the role of technology and educated labor in each country’s economic progress. Under the hypothesis of human capital theory, investment in general education and vocational training is essential for building human capital. Overall, a balanced approach to general education and skills development leads to stronger economic growth and development (UNESCO 2016). Vocational education research began in the 1880s, in a time of rapid urbanization, automation, and industrialization (Maclean and Wilson 2009b). The application of technical and professional skills in the workplace is a significant area of ​​work and employment. Around 80% of all jobs are considered to be of this type (UNESCO 2006). It was not until 1999 that UNESCO adopted the name TVET (Karmel 2010); different labels were used in the past, such as apprenticeship, vocational education, industrial arts, technical education, technical/vocational education (TVE) in Europe, vocational education (OE), vocational education (VET), and career and technical education (CTE) in the United States (Rauner and Maclean 2008). For Finch and Crunkilton (1979), the term “TVET” means education and training that prepares people for employment and increases their efficiency in several economic fields. Maclean and Wilson’s empirical research emphasized the relevance of TVET programs for young people in terms of gaining work experience or becoming self-employed and earning a steady income (Maclean and Wilson 2009a). TVET clearly plays an important role in social growth and sustainable citizenship. Jallah (International, Unesco, and Experts Meeting 2004) and Goel (Goel et al. 2010) believe that TVET is a “master key” to long-term progress, and skills and expertise are vital components of any nation’s social and economic prosperity. According to Ayonmike (Ayonmike et al. 2015), vocational training is essential to prepare workers to deal with rapid technical innovations. Uwaifo investigated the technical professionals who create, assist and implement technological innovation (Uwaifo 2010). A world study (World Bank 2015) linked HRD to economic development by providing technically qualified personnel at all levels to meet the socio-economic criteria for industrial growth and progress, without which capital would be lost. TVET is thus a learning process that, in addition to general education, involves technological studies and business-specific practical skills. The US$62 billion CPEC network aimed to construct energy projects and SEZs to consume talented and semi-skilled workers from both nations (Ahmad and Sharif 2016; Ali 2016; Mamoon and Shield 2018). The expansion of various companies needs qualified, technically certified and talented professionals. With the lack of TVET growth, and few professional vocational colleges and a lack of technical and skilled capabilities, it is challenging to meet the cooperation’s requirements for a technical and qualified workforce. Because CPEC would result in the expansion of institutes of applied and technical sciences, the HRD policy of expanding the number of professionals, managers, executives and competent technical staff is essential. Unlike capital, human resources actively contribute to social and economic progress (Parnes 1965; Magsi 2016; Wang et al. 2017).

Vocational Education And Training

With Chinese and international investments in the unexplored Baluchistan, CPEC helps both China and Pakistan with a positive impact on the economy, development and regional ties; however, for socioeconomic progress, significant TVET system reforms are required to increase technical expertise (GOP 2018; Ansari and Wu 2012; Khan et al. 2020). Only 6% of the workers are qualified in technical and professional subjects, which is not enough to meet the current market demands and serve the CPEC projects. According to Ejaz Hussain, Pakistani workers cannot use Chinese technological instruments and machines (Hussain and Rao 2020). To our knowledge, no conceptual or empirical studies have been conducted in Pakistan to examine the relevance and challenges of TVET in the light of CPEC. A few researchers have worked on this topic, but they were mostly limited to one province; so further research was needed in this area. It was because of this gap that the study in this paper was carried out. This research paper was based on the objective to identify the major factors affecting Pakistan’s TVET and examine the relationship between these variables in the context of CPEC. There are many factors that affect TVET; however, only the following factors will be observed in this study: learning

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